Dangers of hypertension
Hypertension is often called. Silent killer. Because it does not produce obvious symptoms before the body has a serious injury. Hypertension if not controlled, it will damage the heart, arteries, kidney and brain. Eyes are also very sensitive to the effects of hypertension. Daily high pressure fluctuations (that is, the blood pressure during the day to be higher than in the evening) are more likely to have other health problems due to high blood pressure.
Studies have shown that people with high blood pressure and without control are about 3 times more likely to have coronary heart disease than those with a normal blood pressure, and 6 times more likely to have congestive heart failure, and 7 times more likely to have a stroke. However, the adverse effects of the discussion in this chapter are not inevitable. You can control your blood pressure by working closely with your doctor to prevent any health problems associated with hypertension.
As an organ that pumps blood to the body, the heart needs to work too much in order to fight blood vessels in order to fight the blood vessels. Like any muscle, when the heart is forced to work harder, the volume of the heart will become larger. The cardiac muscle wall becomes thicker and shorter, and the muscle loses its original elasticity. However, after the heart is enlarged, it is usually not enough to supply a blood supply with oxygen and nutrients. Also the heart increased and then also more easily produce irregular heartbeat. This is called arrhythmias, feel the heartbeat when less.
Left ventricular hypertrophy occurs when the largest Chamber of the heart – the left ventricle is abnormally dilated. As the wall of the ventricle becomes thick, the ventricles become harder to pump blood, which is filled with blood. Pump out of the blood less and less, resulting in breathing difficulties, angina (chest pain), heart palpitations and dizziness. Blood may flow back to the blood vessels in the lungs, causing greater pressure and causing a rapid breathing. If this process continues, and the pressure is very high, it will occur in the case of pulmonary edema, that is, pulmonary water. Pulmonary edema can lead to severe respiratory disease, which belongs to the emergency, if not treated in time may be fatal.
If hypertension is not controlled, the heart function will begin to weaken after many years. When this happens, the blood flow back into the lungs, which makes you feel like you’re in a state of congestion. The weak heart is unable to maintain blood circulation, thereby causing other parts of the body muscles will become weak from severe hypoxia, so it will happen congestive heart failure. People with congestive heart failure in the early stage of the disease has a respiratory problems, development to the late stage of patients with respiratory symptoms. When sitting upright, breathing becomes easier. In addition, there are some groups also have water. This is called edema, edema will cause legs because of too much water and swelling.
In a large study, which began in late 1940s, the Fleming Han heart research program, doctors found that about 40% of men and 60% of women in the case of congestive heart failure were caused by high blood pressure. In patients with congestive heart failure in the study, about 91% of people with hypertension, previously. Men with high blood pressure, the risk of congestive heart failure is about 2 times the normal blood pressure, and women with high blood pressure, the risk of congestive heart failure is about 3 times the normal people. Men with congestive heart failure, only less than 1/4 of people in the disease was diagnosed, the survival of more than 5 years, the survival rate of female patients is less than 1/3.
A coronary artery that supplies oxygen and energy to the heart is also affected by high blood pressure. When coronary artery is not for heart patients provide sufficient oxygen, patients in forced breathing will feel to pain, tightness or our Europe of tightness in the chest, this is angina pectoris. Like congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, early in the disease can feel, and then will be more frequent episodes, even at rest or is in the mood change commanded will occur.
Simple angina does not damage the heart, but it can be a warning sign of a heart attack (see chart below). A heart attack, the pain duration is longer than angina, and usually accompanied by other symptoms, such as nausea and sweating. In the heart attack, because of obstruction in the coronary artery, leading to the local heart blood supply is cut off, and then make this site due to the lack of blood supply and lead to cardiac death. If a large part of the heart is out of blood supply, the heart will stop unless it provides first aid.
Left ventricular hypertrophy can cause angina pectoris. Thickening of the left ventricular muscle will always pressure small blood vessels, small blood vessels were completely flattened until. The results will be caused by the small blood vessels to nourish the organization in a short period of time, thus causing the heart to angina. If hypertension is not always controlled, the left ventricular hypertrophy will further develop into myocardial atrophy (tissue death due to vascular damage), resulting in the loss of part of the heart pump blood function. When the heart can’t promote blood circulation to the body, it will lead to congestive heart failure.
Because the kidney plays a very important role in the regulation of blood pressure, some diseases of the kidney can lead to hypertension. In fact, 3% of the 4% hypertension is associated with kidney, especially in young patients and those with diabetes. The urine is often used for the diagnosis of kidney disease caused by hypertension.
Renal vascular hypertension
Renal vascular hypertension is the most common secondary hypertension. Renal vascular hypertension occurs when most of the arteries (kidneys) are supplied to the kidney (more than half) or completely blocked. If the blood supply to the kidney is reduced, it is affected by the release of the renin to respond to the kidney. Renin is not only an elevated blood pressure in the renal arteries, but rather an elevated blood pressure in the whole body.
In most people with renal vascular hypertension, the arteries are clogged with plaques. In some cases, the renal arteries can be completely removed by surgery, and it can also be removed by vascular reconstruction. Once the artery is open, blood pressure will return to normal. Renal vascular hypertension patients for the elderly (over 55 years of age), and systolic blood pressure tends to be higher. Other arteries in the body, such as the coronary artery, are prone to clogging.
Renovascular hypertension can also be caused by fibromuscular hyperplasia. In this patient, the muscular and fibrous tissue of the renal arteries (arteries) in the renal arteries increases and becomes ring. Like common atherosclerotic plaques, these fibrous tissue rings interfere with the flow of blood in the renal arteries. Fibromuscular hyperplasia occurs mainly in young white women (usually less than 30 years old), and when they get pregnant, is likely to get worse. Can be used for dredging or widening reconstruction of renal artery by surgical operation, so that the blood pressure returned to normal.
The kidney is responsible for removing the body’s waste products and excess sodium and other substances. Small filter material in the kidney is called the glomerular. Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of these filters. Inflammation of the kidney can not play a role, and may eventually become permanent damage and make functional recession T results is a significant rise in blood pressure. If the glomerular nephritis is a sudden attack, such as a result of infectious diseases, urine will be black (usually with blood), and a sharp rise in blood pressure can cause headaches and vision problems. Acute (sudden) episodes of glomerulonephritis in children and young people. Chronic glomerulonephritis is gradually developing, and will continue for many years. Unless the kidney is seriously hurt by the disease, the symptoms of chronic glomerulonephritis are not very obvious. According to the disease and the disease, a lot of mild acute glomerulonephritis may be better. If it is an acute attack, the first need to treat the underlying cause of disease.
Polycystic kidney disease
Polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disease, patients with two kidneys have a lot of cyst (charge to shout Zhu Zhu Xia Han Bu production bases rare into kidney volume increased and functional decline. In the body such as a cyst in pregnancy can be detected by B ultrasound or genetic examination, otherwise the disease will not occur until the time of childhood multiple urinary tract infection and hematuria, etc.. This kind of cyst can destroy normal kidney function, cause uric road infection and high blood pressure, both of them should be treated, if need, still need to take medicaments appropriately. Polycystic kidney disease can only be treated by renal transplantation.
When a part of the kidney is inflamed and the urethra is blocked, it will occur. The acute attack of the kidney or the slow production, or in the middle of the kidney may occur in the middle of the kidney, the kidney may be due to congenital (born when there is) the cause of urinary tract obstruction. Because of its damage to kidney tissue can cause blood pressure rise, must rely on surgery to remove excess water wells to solve the problem of blockage. Once the renal function returned to normal, blood pressure will generally return to normal levels.
Understanding of hypertension
About 95% of patients with high blood pressure without any definite cause, this is called essential hypertension. When we talk about high blood pressure, we often talk about the type of essential hypertension. And secondary hypertension is a kind of hypertension caused by the potential disease.
Risk factors for hypertension
Essential hypertension has the characteristics of family heredity. If your parents or brothers and sisters have high blood pressure, you may be more likely to get the disease. Many organs and systems are related to the regulation of blood pressure, and the genetic diseases of any one of them can promote the development of hypertension.
Being overweight has the characteristics of family heredity, which may also be part of the genetic causes of high blood pressure in the family. Studies have indicated that 6 of the 10 adult patients with high blood pressure were 20% or more overweight. If you are overweight, your blood pressure may be higher than normal. For young people, the impact of weight on blood pressure even more obvious, the age of 20 to 44 years of age over 5 times the risk of high blood pressure is normal, but 45 years of age and over weight of people think the disease is only 2 times the normal people. In a 5 year study of adults who had normal blood pressure or high blood pressure, it is likely that people who continue to raise blood pressure are likely to be overweight. And from the other side, only 5 kg of body weight can lower blood pressure.
The American Heart Association has officially moving column as a cause of hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke the four highest risk factors. Even if you don’t have any weight, you can increase your chances of developing high blood pressure. Remember, whether you have been training in the gym, gardening, doing housework, jogging or walking, you are exercising your cardiovascular system, which will help you work more effectively and lower your blood pressure.
Black people with high blood pressure are almost 2 times more than whites. It affects more than 1/3 of African Americans, and they are more than 2/3 of the people are more than 60 years of age. The elderly black women had the highest incidence of hypertension. Hypertension is the second cause of death in more than 65000 African Americans every year. Black patients with high blood pressure are older than whites (especially in women), and are usually more severe. African Americans have higher rates of stroke, heart disease and kidney failure associated with high blood pressure. In the United States, black women live under the weight of a low income, high crime rate and high unemployment, so their blood pressure is higher than those living in a low pressure environment.
Blood pressure usually increases with age, especially in women. Women had less hypertension before menopause, and they were more likely to have hypertension after menopause. In the elderly, blood pressure is increased because of the deposition of the arterial elasticity and strength of the situation deteriorated, increase the arterial occlusion, reduce the body’s ability to maintain the balance of water and sodium, and caused a reduction in the physical function and the overall health level. Older people may also have other health problems, such as diabetes or high cholesterol. They often take one or more of the drug every day, and some of them may be up to high blood pressure. Many older people have a higher systolic blood pressure, but they are normal, which may make it difficult for them to realize the seriousness of the problem.
Smoking is associated with many serious health problems, so it’s likely that it will increase the risk of high blood pressure. Chemicals in tobacco can damage the inner wall of the arteries and make them more prone to clogging. And nicotine is a strong irritant, it will affect the control of the heart and blood vessels. When these cells are stimulated, the heart rate increases, and the arteries are contracting, leading to higher blood pressure. Smoking is associated with an increase in the number of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and a decrease in the number of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
Even smoking and tobacco can increase the risk of developing hypertension. Tobacco contains nicotine, sodium and licorice, all of which are raised in high blood pressure. Nicotine in tobacco smoke to more than ordinary cigarettes, each containing sodium 200-1200 milligrams per day (the doctor recommended that people do not consume more than 2400 mg of sodium per day), while the natural licorice will be through the body to protect sodium to raise blood pressure.
Alcohol can also lead to high blood pressure, especially if you’re taking a lot of alcohol. In a for more than 8, 000 adult studies, high blood pressure occurred in daily drink 1-2 glasses of wine of the male body, and for women, elevated blood pressure occurred three or more cups of wine drinking in some Yuan every day. 1 glasses of wine (350 grams of beer) about 13 grams of alcohol. And the study shows that if you take over 20-24 grams of alcohol per day, the blood pressure will continue to rise, which is not related to the type of alcoholic drinks.
In addition, a lot of people under the weight of the people will suffer from high blood pressure. Stress is a result of the imbalance in the material or spiritual needs and the ability to deal with these imbalances in your body. Stress can cause a number of chemical changes in the body, and blood pressure is a result of these chemical changes. General blood pressure is only temporary, and will return to normal after stress. And the nature of the relationship between stress and hypertension in some people is still under study.
Arteries play a more active role in regulating blood pressure. The brain is a part of the sympathetic nervous system, which is used to understand the fluctuations in blood pressure through a special sensor on the wall. They feel the pressure of the arterial wall to rise or fall, and this kind of information is transmitted to the brain. When the brain receives a signal of high blood pressure, it sends out information to relax the blood vessels through the collection of nerve cells (blood vessels).
The brain also monitors the amount of oxygen and nutrients the body needs. It regulates blood pressure and blood flow to ensure that the needs of each organization can be met. When the body rests, the brain lowers blood pressure, when the body is under a variety of stress (including the pressure of wake up), the brain will be high blood pressure. The help of the blood vessels to relax the nerve to the changes is to tell the arteries to relax (to lower blood pressure) or to shrink (L hypertension).
As mentioned above, the brain through. Inform. Adrenaline and norepinephrine are the way to get the body ready for the unexpected. These hormones are suitable for a specific organization, like a key to open a lock, the lock is called a receptor, and when the hormone enters, it will start a specific action. The heart also has this “lock”, it is called a receptor. When adrenaline and norepinephrine enter the receptors, the heart beats faster. E- receptors were also in the kidney. When adrenaline and norepinephrine enter these receptors, the kidneys are stimulated to produce renin. There is a drug known as e- receptor blocker, which is the role of the receptor to enter the target and prevent the increase of blood pressure and adrenaline and norepinephrine.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine also enter the a- in the arteries. When this happens, the arteries will shrink, and then the blood pressure will rise. The number of calcium in the muscle cells is dependent on the wall of the arteries and veins. This contraction is caused by a small amount of calcium entering the cell through a tiny channel called the calcium channel. You may have heard of a drug called calcium antagonists, which block the contraction of the vessel wall by blocking the passage of calcium into the cell. The A receptor blocker is a drug that acts by stopping the contraction of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
In the last section, the renin is released from the kidney and other tissues such as the liver, which is released when the body needs to rise. However, renin does not directly affect blood pressure. More specifically, it triggers a chemical reaction that causes one to be converted into another protein, which is converted to angiotensin. If angiotensin encountered vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme, you may heard of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Yuan is a stop the drugs). This produces another product called vascular angiotensin “. Angiotensin is an active chemical, which can cause arterial contraction and release of aldosterone. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system has not been fully studied, but the study shows that it is essential for the development of hypertension. , a new type of drug called angiotensin blockers is interfering with the effect of this potent chemical.
Many other factors affect the blood vessel resistance. Too much liquid and increase the volume, make the organization become stiff. Arteries must be harder to shrink to the blood into the tissue, blood pressure and so on.
Blood pressure increases with age, and this is because the arteries become more rigid and less flexible, resulting in more resistance to blood flow. Many of the arteries will become narrow and blocked by the accumulation of fat debris over the years, thereby increasing peripheral resistance, which can lead to higher blood pressure.
Blood pressure regulation
You may think that only the heart is responsible for high blood pressure, but in fact, many of the organs and the chemicals they produce are related to hypertension. Because it involves so many human systems, the researchers have not yet determined the exact cause of the high blood pressure. Blood pressure may be affected by any effect on the amount of heart output (the amount of blood flowing out of the heart) or the amount of peripheral resistance (blood flow in the blood vessel) or the change in the two things.
What is high blood pressure
Although all the tissues, nerve cells and chemical information are usually co – working to maintain normal blood pressure, the perfect system of checks and balances is disrupted in some human. Their blood pressure will always be high, even though their body does not require this extra pressure on the distribution of oxygen and nutrients. Some studies suggest that this persistent hypertension is essential hypertension, the most common type of hypertension. And if blood pressure rises because other diseases or take drugs, this is the secondary hypertension or disease associated hypertension (hypertension caused by the disease).
In fact, there is no clear boundary between normal blood pressure and high blood pressure. For many years, doctors have defined high blood pressure on the basis of medical experience. Doctors have examined thousands of patients with different blood pressure levels, thereby determining who is at the top of the highest risk of physical injury and disease. Based on years of accumulation of information, the United States national high blood pressure, the assessment and treatment of the Joint Committee (JNC) developed a blood pressure guidelines to help people to monitor the risk of hypertension and high blood pressure on the health of the negative impact.
The heart is controlled by the brain, which allows blood to flow at a steady rate of 5.5 liters per minute. If the fluid overload, blood will be increased, cardiac output and blood pressure were all increased. The greater the amount of fluid, the more difficult the heart and blood vessels to make the blood flow. Diuretic is a common drug for treating hypertension, which works by reducing the amount of fluid in the body.
Kidney (two in the back of the waist of the bean shaped organs) to control the amount of fluid circulation in the body. They control the amount of fluid in a person’s urine, either by keeping them in a salt or by keeping them in water. Usually if you eat too much salt, the kidney will emit an excess of sodium and the relative amount of water. However, if your kidneys are unable to rule out the excess sodium, your body will keep the moisture, which will increase the amount of blood and elevated blood pressure.
There are two important chemical substances and maintain the balance of water and sodium in the body. An enzyme called renin (which is secreted by the kidneys, which can accelerate the rate of chemical reaction in the body). The amount of the kidney in the body fluid (which is based on the amount of salt consumed) and the blood pressure applied to the kidney to determine when to release the renin. The lower the pressure, the more the ridge is released. Renin can speed up the rate of angiotensin (a protein in the blood) to a blood vessel. In the next chapter, the reaction and the results are presented.
The side product of the renin can also stimulate the adrenal gland, the right side of the kidney, to produce a chemical that is related to the level of sodium in the body. This chemical is a hormone called aldosterone. And the enzyme is not the same, the hormone will enter a single cell and to serve as a chemical messenger to their target tissues. Aldosterone enters the blood from the adrenal gland and then enters the kidney. The chemical information that aldosterone gives to the kidneys is to retain more sodium and water. The holding capacity of sodium and water increased blood pressure.
Other hormones that affect cardiac output and blood pressure. When you are in any stressful situation, your brain is in the middle of a sudden condition. One way is to send the information to an organ through the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the vegetative nervous system, while the vegetative nervous system belongs to the nervous system. The system is responsible for controlling involuntary movements such as breathing, digesting food and controlling blood pressure.
When the adrenal gland is received from the sympathetic nervous system, they secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which have different effects on the body. Adrenaline makes the heart beat faster, and that’s what’s going on in the next chapter. As you would like to be the heart of the heart of the sudden rise in heart rate will increase the output of the heart, so high blood pressure.