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Essential hypertension


Essential hypertension

Essential hypertension
About 95% of the cause of hypertension is unknown, so there is no clear treatment. The important evidence indicates that hypertension is caused by the problem of kidney. The study of the kidney showed that a kidney donated by high blood pressure patients would lead to transplant recipients with high blood pressure, and the kidneys donated by normal blood pressure would cause the transplant to disappear. The researchers believe that the early renal function of the early years of the subtle changes in the incidence of hypertension has important influence.
Essential hypertensive patients may have different responses to treatment due to their individual differences. For example, the renal renin in approximately 1/5 of patients with essential hypertension. This is more common among blacks than whites. And a small number of essential hypertension in patients with excessive renin. About more than 1/4 of the patients with essential hypertension of the adrenal glands seem to have problems, their kidneys are hampered by the body to regulate sodium levels. All of these elements are very important. Because they affect people’s health.
Secondary hypertension
For a small part of the high blood pressure, the cause of their hypertension is known, and it may be cured. This type of hypertension is called secondary hypertension, because the rise in blood pressure is indirectly caused by an underlying disease.
If you suspect that you have secondary hypertension, you can judge whether you have these characteristics:
1. Secondary hypertension usually occurs suddenly and without warning.
2. Secondary hypertension is usually the cause of the increase of blood pressure in children.
3. Secondary hypertension often leads to very high blood pressure.
4. The range of blood pressure in patients with secondary hypertension is very large.
5, secondary hypertension is usually accompanied by other unusual symptoms, which can be found.
In most cases, the doctor will direct the treatment of the original disease in the province. If the primary disease is cured, blood pressure will generally return to normal.
You know all kinds of human system for regulating blood pressure. There is no doubt that the defects or diseases of these organs will reduce their ability to maintain normal blood pressure. The most common case one one introduction.

Understanding of hypertension

How to overcome hypertension5


Understanding of hypertension
About 95% of patients with high blood pressure without any definite cause, this is called essential hypertension. When we talk about high blood pressure, we often talk about the type of essential hypertension. And secondary hypertension is a kind of hypertension caused by the potential disease.
Risk factors for hypertension
Essential hypertension has the characteristics of family heredity. If your parents or brothers and sisters have high blood pressure, you may be more likely to get the disease. Many organs and systems are related to the regulation of blood pressure, and the genetic diseases of any one of them can promote the development of hypertension.
Being overweight has the characteristics of family heredity, which may also be part of the genetic causes of high blood pressure in the family. Studies have indicated that 6 of the 10 adult patients with high blood pressure were 20% or more overweight. If you are overweight, your blood pressure may be higher than normal. For young people, the impact of weight on blood pressure even more obvious, the age of 20 to 44 years of age over 5 times the risk of high blood pressure is normal, but 45 years of age and over weight of people think the disease is only 2 times the normal people. In a 5 year study of adults who had normal blood pressure or high blood pressure, it is likely that people who continue to raise blood pressure are likely to be overweight. And from the other side, only 5 kg of body weight can lower blood pressure.
The American Heart Association has officially moving column as a cause of hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke the four highest risk factors. Even if you don’t have any weight, you can increase your chances of developing high blood pressure. Remember, whether you have been training in the gym, gardening, doing housework, jogging or walking, you are exercising your cardiovascular system, which will help you work more effectively and lower your blood pressure.
Black people with high blood pressure are almost 2 times more than whites. It affects more than 1/3 of African Americans, and they are more than 2/3 of the people are more than 60 years of age. The elderly black women had the highest incidence of hypertension. Hypertension is the second cause of death in more than 65000 African Americans every year. Black patients with high blood pressure are older than whites (especially in women), and are usually more severe. African Americans have higher rates of stroke, heart disease and kidney failure associated with high blood pressure. In the United States, black women live under the weight of a low income, high crime rate and high unemployment, so their blood pressure is higher than those living in a low pressure environment.
Blood pressure usually increases with age, especially in women. Women had less hypertension before menopause, and they were more likely to have hypertension after menopause. In the elderly, blood pressure is increased because of the deposition of the arterial elasticity and strength of the situation deteriorated, increase the arterial occlusion, reduce the body’s ability to maintain the balance of water and sodium, and caused a reduction in the physical function and the overall health level. Older people may also have other health problems, such as diabetes or high cholesterol. They often take one or more of the drug every day, and some of them may be up to high blood pressure. Many older people have a higher systolic blood pressure, but they are normal, which may make it difficult for them to realize the seriousness of the problem.
Smoking is associated with many serious health problems, so it’s likely that it will increase the risk of high blood pressure. Chemicals in tobacco can damage the inner wall of the arteries and make them more prone to clogging. And nicotine is a strong irritant, it will affect the control of the heart and blood vessels. When these cells are stimulated, the heart rate increases, and the arteries are contracting, leading to higher blood pressure. Smoking is associated with an increase in the number of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and a decrease in the number of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
Even smoking and tobacco can increase the risk of developing hypertension. Tobacco contains nicotine, sodium and licorice, all of which are raised in high blood pressure. Nicotine in tobacco smoke to more than ordinary cigarettes, each containing sodium 200-1200 milligrams per day (the doctor recommended that people do not consume more than 2400 mg of sodium per day), while the natural licorice will be through the body to protect sodium to raise blood pressure.
Alcohol can also lead to high blood pressure, especially if you’re taking a lot of alcohol. In a for more than 8, 000 adult studies, high blood pressure occurred in daily drink 1-2 glasses of wine of the male body, and for women, elevated blood pressure occurred three or more cups of wine drinking in some Yuan every day. 1 glasses of wine (350 grams of beer) about 13 grams of alcohol. And the study shows that if you take over 20-24 grams of alcohol per day, the blood pressure will continue to rise, which is not related to the type of alcoholic drinks.
In addition, a lot of people under the weight of the people will suffer from high blood pressure. Stress is a result of the imbalance in the material or spiritual needs and the ability to deal with these imbalances in your body. Stress can cause a number of chemical changes in the body, and blood pressure is a result of these chemical changes. General blood pressure is only temporary, and will return to normal after stress. And the nature of the relationship between stress and hypertension in some people is still under study.

Peripheral resistance

How to overcome hypertension4Peripheral resistance

Arteries play a more active role in regulating blood pressure. The brain is a part of the sympathetic nervous system, which is used to understand the fluctuations in blood pressure through a special sensor on the wall. They feel the pressure of the arterial wall to rise or fall, and this kind of information is transmitted to the brain. When the brain receives a signal of high blood pressure, it sends out information to relax the blood vessels through the collection of nerve cells (blood vessels).
The brain also monitors the amount of oxygen and nutrients the body needs. It regulates blood pressure and blood flow to ensure that the needs of each organization can be met. When the body rests, the brain lowers blood pressure, when the body is under a variety of stress (including the pressure of wake up), the brain will be high blood pressure. The help of the blood vessels to relax the nerve to the changes is to tell the arteries to relax (to lower blood pressure) or to shrink (L hypertension).
As mentioned above, the brain through. Inform. Adrenaline and norepinephrine are the way to get the body ready for the unexpected. These hormones are suitable for a specific organization, like a key to open a lock, the lock is called a receptor, and when the hormone enters, it will start a specific action. The heart also has this “lock”, it is called a receptor. When adrenaline and norepinephrine enter the receptors, the heart beats faster. E- receptors were also in the kidney. When adrenaline and norepinephrine enter these receptors, the kidneys are stimulated to produce renin. There is a drug known as e- receptor blocker, which is the role of the receptor to enter the target and prevent the increase of blood pressure and adrenaline and norepinephrine.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine also enter the a- in the arteries. When this happens, the arteries will shrink, and then the blood pressure will rise. The number of calcium in the muscle cells is dependent on the wall of the arteries and veins. This contraction is caused by a small amount of calcium entering the cell through a tiny channel called the calcium channel. You may have heard of a drug called calcium antagonists, which block the contraction of the vessel wall by blocking the passage of calcium into the cell. The A receptor blocker is a drug that acts by stopping the contraction of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
In the last section, the renin is released from the kidney and other tissues such as the liver, which is released when the body needs to rise. However, renin does not directly affect blood pressure. More specifically, it triggers a chemical reaction that causes one to be converted into another protein, which is converted to angiotensin. If angiotensin encountered vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme, you may heard of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Yuan is a stop the drugs). This produces another product called vascular angiotensin “. Angiotensin is an active chemical, which can cause arterial contraction and release of aldosterone. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system has not been fully studied, but the study shows that it is essential for the development of hypertension. , a new type of drug called angiotensin blockers is interfering with the effect of this potent chemical.
Many other factors affect the blood vessel resistance. Too much liquid and increase the volume, make the organization become stiff. Arteries must be harder to shrink to the blood into the tissue, blood pressure and so on.
Blood pressure increases with age, and this is because the arteries become more rigid and less flexible, resulting in more resistance to blood flow. Many of the arteries will become narrow and blocked by the accumulation of fat debris over the years, thereby increasing peripheral resistance, which can lead to higher blood pressure.

Blood pressure regulation


How to overcome hypertension3Blood pressure regulation
You may think that only the heart is responsible for high blood pressure, but in fact, many of the organs and the chemicals they produce are related to hypertension. Because it involves so many human systems, the researchers have not yet determined the exact cause of the high blood pressure. Blood pressure may be affected by any effect on the amount of heart output (the amount of blood flowing out of the heart) or the amount of peripheral resistance (blood flow in the blood vessel) or the change in the two things.
What is high blood pressure
Although all the tissues, nerve cells and chemical information are usually co – working to maintain normal blood pressure, the perfect system of checks and balances is disrupted in some human. Their blood pressure will always be high, even though their body does not require this extra pressure on the distribution of oxygen and nutrients. Some studies suggest that this persistent hypertension is essential hypertension, the most common type of hypertension. And if blood pressure rises because other diseases or take drugs, this is the secondary hypertension or disease associated hypertension (hypertension caused by the disease).
In fact, there is no clear boundary between normal blood pressure and high blood pressure. For many years, doctors have defined high blood pressure on the basis of medical experience. Doctors have examined thousands of patients with different blood pressure levels, thereby determining who is at the top of the highest risk of physical injury and disease. Based on years of accumulation of information, the United States national high blood pressure, the assessment and treatment of the Joint Committee (JNC) developed a blood pressure guidelines to help people to monitor the risk of hypertension and high blood pressure on the health of the negative impact.

Cardiac output


How to overcome hypertension2

Cardiac output
The heart is controlled by the brain, which allows blood to flow at a steady rate of 5.5 liters per minute. If the fluid overload, blood will be increased, cardiac output and blood pressure were all increased. The greater the amount of fluid, the more difficult the heart and blood vessels to make the blood flow. Diuretic is a common drug for treating hypertension, which works by reducing the amount of fluid in the body.
Kidney (two in the back of the waist of the bean shaped organs) to control the amount of fluid circulation in the body. They control the amount of fluid in a person’s urine, either by keeping them in a salt or by keeping them in water. Usually if you eat too much salt, the kidney will emit an excess of sodium and the relative amount of water. However, if your kidneys are unable to rule out the excess sodium, your body will keep the moisture, which will increase the amount of blood and elevated blood pressure.
There are two important chemical substances and maintain the balance of water and sodium in the body. An enzyme called renin (which is secreted by the kidneys, which can accelerate the rate of chemical reaction in the body). The amount of the kidney in the body fluid (which is based on the amount of salt consumed) and the blood pressure applied to the kidney to determine when to release the renin. The lower the pressure, the more the ridge is released. Renin can speed up the rate of angiotensin (a protein in the blood) to a blood vessel. In the next chapter, the reaction and the results are presented.
The side product of the renin can also stimulate the adrenal gland, the right side of the kidney, to produce a chemical that is related to the level of sodium in the body. This chemical is a hormone called aldosterone. And the enzyme is not the same, the hormone will enter a single cell and to serve as a chemical messenger to their target tissues. Aldosterone enters the blood from the adrenal gland and then enters the kidney. The chemical information that aldosterone gives to the kidneys is to retain more sodium and water. The holding capacity of sodium and water increased blood pressure.
Other hormones that affect cardiac output and blood pressure. When you are in any stressful situation, your brain is in the middle of a sudden condition. One way is to send the information to an organ through the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the vegetative nervous system, while the vegetative nervous system belongs to the nervous system. The system is responsible for controlling involuntary movements such as breathing, digesting food and controlling blood pressure.
When the adrenal gland is received from the sympathetic nervous system, they secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which have different effects on the body. Adrenaline makes the heart beat faster, and that’s what’s going on in the next chapter. As you would like to be the heart of the heart of the sudden rise in heart rate will increase the output of the heart, so high blood pressure.

Regulation mechanism of human blood pressure



Regulation mechanism of human blood pressure
In order to understand. Hypertension is a serious health problem, “this concept, you must first be familiar with the concept of blood pressure. This chapter describes how the body regulates blood pressure, why the body regulates blood pressure, and what impact it will have on the system.
The heart and blood vessels in the body cooperate with oxygen and nutrients to the body, and to remove the waste, such as carbon dioxide, which is exhaled when you breathe. Blood is the transmission medium of these substances. Blood pressure is the result of two kinds of forces in the body that produce the opposite effect. One force is produced when the heart pumps blood, and the other is that the blood flow is generated by the arteries that transport oxygen and nutrients to tissues. The pressure produced during the contraction of the heart is called the systolic pressure, and the pressure of the blood on the wall of the heart is called the diastolic pressure. If the pressure from the heart pumps blood or the resistance (or both) is too large, you get high blood pressure.
Blood through the heart of the pump blood function in the body to continue to cycle. The heart pumps the blood to the lungs to carry oxygen, and then the other parts of the body, and then transmitted to the heart through the cardiovascular system. Because the heart and blood vessels are involved in the same cycle, you often hear the name – the cardiovascular system.
Heart to do a small volume (about a clenched fist size) but powerful pump, it makes the blood circulation in the cardiovascular system. It is the most industrious muscle, and it is not the beat of the day and night. The heart beats about 1 times per second, and the total length of the blood pump is 9.6 ~ 16 km long.
The heart is divided into 4 separate chambers, which prevent the blood flow and the mixing of blood between the chambers. The circulation of blood is first received by the first chamber, the right atrium, and once the oxygen of the blood is entered into the atrium, it is pushed into the next chamber of the heart — right ventricle, right ventricle to be. Used in. Blood through the pulmonary artery (the only blood supply of blood in the arteries) directly to the lungs. Lung tissue filters carbon dioxide and provides oxygen for the blood to make it an oxygen rich blood. And then the oxygen enriched blood is returned to the next chamber, left atrium, through the pulmonary veins (the only blood carrying oxygen rich blood). When oxygen enriched blood enters the left atrium, it will be pushed into the final cardiac chamber, left ventricle.
The left ventricle is the main chamber of the heart. As the largest and most powerful heart chamber, the left ventricle will oxygen enriched blood through the body’s largest artery – the great arteries transported to the whole body. Left ventricular work is very hard, so it is about 1.3 cm thick, almost 3 times more than the wall of the right atrium.
Like other organs, the heart also needs oxygen and nutrients to play a role. The heart is supplied with oxygen by the two coronary arteries (left and right) in the large arteries. Used in. Hypoxia blood directly into the right atrium through the coronary veins.
Oxygen enriched blood. Used in. Blood was left and the cardiovascular system was divided into two parts. Arteries send oxygen and nutrients from the heart to the body, while the blood supply to the heart, and the blood flow back to the heart. Microvascular away from the heart, into the tissue in the arteries and veins will be divided into smaller and more fine. The blood from the arteries of the blood vessels is caused by blood from the artery. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the human body, which transport oxygen and nutrients to a single cell and collect the waste products. The lack of oxygen and oxygen rich blood from the blood flow from the capillaries to the micro vein (minimal), and then the blood from here sent back to the heart.
A healthy person’s arteries are strong and elastic. When the heart pumps blood through them, they stretch. In the need to control the flow of blood, the diameter of the artery will change. In order to raise blood pressure, the tiny arteries will shrink and become narrow. You will understand their working principles in the back.